Author Archives: Karthick D




Sandalwood occurs extensively mostly in the Eastern Ghats ranging from Vellore district in the North east of Tamil Nadu to the Nilgiris in the west in the dry deciduous forests of the region. In Tamilnadu only dead and drying sandal trees are extracted and brought to depots for rough cleaning and final cleaning. The final cleaned sandalwood is sold in public auction in three sandalwood depots at Tirupathur, Salem and Sathyamangalam at regular intervals. To purchase sandalwood through auction sales, firm or individual must register their name with the respective District Forest Officers, participate in the sale and offer highest bid.

Sandalwood can also be purchased through retail sale of Forest Department. The retail sale of sandalwood shall be ordered by the following officers to meet the bonafide local demands. (G.O. Ms. No. 1228, Forests and Fisheries dept., dated 6.10.1983)

District Forest Officer Upto 5 kilograms to private individuals.
Conservator of Forests i) Upto 10 kilograms to private individuals. ii) Upto 100 kilograms to temples.
Chief Conservator of Forests i) Upto 50 kilograms to private individuals. ii) Upto 500 kilograms to temples.

The sale rates are fixed by the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests and communicated to all officers once in a year. Based on the rate the sandalwood is sold in retail sale. In G.O.Ms.No.429, Environment and Forests Department, dated 24.10.1997, District Forest Officers have been permitted to sell upto 10 M. Tonnes of sandalwood to temples under the control of HR & CE, enterprises under the control of Tamilnadu Khadi and Village Industries Board, Government enterprises and organisations like IMPCOPS manufacturing medicines under the control of Co-operation Department. Government in their G.O.Ms.No.37, Environment and Forest Department, dated 10.02.1999 have authorized the Forest Department to sell upto 10 M.Tonnes of sandalwood to small users through retail sale.

According to Tamil Nadu Sandalwood Transit Rules 1967, no person shall import sandalwood into or export sandalwood from or move sandalwood within any place in the State unless such sandalwood is accompanied either by a permit referred to in Rule 4 or by a way permit referred to in rule 6 and unless such sandalwood bears the mark of the Government of Origin, as provided in rule 7 of the property mark in respect of such sandalwood which has been duly registered in accordance with rule 7. The Forest Department issues the permits mentioned above in Form I, Form II and Form III after collection of necessary fees.

Extraction from Private Lands & Patta Lands and Property Mark Registration

For extraction of Sandalwood trees from private lands (ie. assigned lands) and registration of a property mark application shall be made to the District Forest Officer concerned furnishing all particulars in Form IV as specified in Tamil Nadu Sandalwood Transit Rules, 1967. The District Forest Officer or his authorized officer shall inspect the trees and with the consent of the owner of the land affix the departmental hammer mark on each tree and issue written permission for the extraction of the trees and grant a certificate of registration of property mark in Form V for the transport of the trees by the owner to a central place for final cleaning. The pattadars will be permitted to dispose off the wood or to transport it to any other place from the Central place wherein it has been stored after obtaining specific orders of the Government.

In order to simplify the procedure and to encourage the private owners to grow more sandalwood trees in their patta lands the Government have framed “The Tamil Nadu Sandalwood Trees on patta lands Rules, 2008” effective 27th November 2008. As per these rules sandalwood trees grown on any patta land will be property of pattadar. However the owner of sandalwood trees has to sell his trees to Government only. For this purpose he shall apply to District Forest Officer in Form-I appended to these Rules with list of trees and necessary documents.

The District Forest Officer after due inspections and verification shall grant permission to sell those trees to Government. Forest Ranger Officer concerned will extract those trees and transport them to Final Cleaning Depot. Extraction and recording of measurement of trees will be done in the presence of the owner. After final cleaning is over the District Forest Officer will arrive at the total quantity of final cleaned wood and sapwood obtained from those extracted trees and calculate their value (sale price) based upon the average sale price of previous sale. Twenty percent of this sale price shall be deducted towards extraction, transport, final cleaning and administrative charges and balance 80% will be paid to the owner.

In case the owner of the sandalwood trees is aggrieved by the fixation of sale price by the District Forest Officer he may prefer an Appeal to Conservator of Forests concerned within 30 days from the date of receipt of orders of District Forest Officer in this regard. The Conservator of Forests shall give the appellant an opportunity of being heard and pass orders on the appeal which shall be final.

Regulation on Possession of Sandalwood by Public

The possession of sandalwood in Tamil Nadu is regulated under Tamil Nadu Sandalwood Possession Rules, 1970. As per Rule 3(1) of these rules no person shall possess or stock sandalwood in excess of five kilograms without a licence issued by District Forest Officer. If any person intends to possess or store sandalwood in excess of 5 kilograms he shall apply to the District Forest Officer in Form I and obtain a licence after paying the fees prescribed in sub rule (7) of rule 4.



A means of connecting a computer to any other computer anywhere in the world via dedicated routers and servers. When two computers are connected over the Internet, they can send and receive all kinds of information such as text, graphics, voice, and computer programs.

No one owns Internet, although several organizations viz. Telephone Companies (Airtel, Reliance, etc.) the world over collaborate in its functioning and development.  The high-speed, fiber-optic cables through which the bulk of the Internet data travels are owned by above companies in their respective countries.

The Internet grew out of the Advanced Research Projects Agency’s Wide Area Network (then called ARPANET) established by the US Department of Defense in 1960 for collaboration in military research among business and laboratories.  This resulted in ARPANET growing beyond everyone’s expectations and acquiring the name ‘Internet.’

The development of hypertext based technology (called World Wide Web, WWW, or just the Web) provided means of displaying text, graphics, and animations, and easy search and navigation tools that triggered Internet’s explosive world wise growth.


A browser, also referred to as a web browser.  The software used to navigate through the web is known as a browser. It was created as a simplified means to present and explore content on the World Wide Web.  Google Chrome, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firebox, Opera, Apple Safari, etc.

Browsing a data from Internet

With help of a browser program i.e. Chrome, IE, Firebox, Safar, Opera, etc., you can search a data across internet.  Each browser has a search window, where you can type your searching word.  Browser will list out the website address, which have the source related to the searching word.  With help of hyper link concept, you can click on the relevant website address to get source.

Equipment required for an Internet Connection


Any good configured Computer System Units (16 mb RAM or more,  2 GB HDD or more, 200 mhz processor or more).

MODEM (MOdulator DEModulator)

It is a device that is used to transmit data over the network. Your computer sends data in BINARY CODE (DIGITAL) to your modem which converts the binary-coded data to an ANALOGUE signal. This data then travels along the telephone network. When the data reaches the destination computer, the modem connected to that computer converts the analogue signal back into binary coded data which can be read by your computer. Thus the modem transmits data over the network.

a) External Modem    b)  Internal Modem.

The External Modem has to be connected to your computer and telephone line with cables and electric socket.

The Internal Modem is already built inside your computer. 

Telephone Line

It is essential to have a telephone connection to get connected to Internet. All the data and information pass through the telephone lines as anologue signals.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

If you have a computer with a web browser, a modem and a telephone line connected to your computer, you now need an Internet connection. You can get an Internet connection from various Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Earlier in India, Inernet connection was only available through VSNL (VIdesh Sanchar Nigam Limited). Now, you can choose your ISP from among 120 companies which have been granted ISP licenses. Among them, the most popular ISPs are VSNL, MTNL and Mantra Online and also in our region AirTel, Reliance, Hutch, etc., 

browser, also referred to as a web browser. It is essential to float on internet world. It is already discussed previous paragraph of this post.

What is WEBSITE and EMAIL ?


A Web site is a related collection of World Wide Web (WWW) files that includes a beginning file called a HOME page. A company or an individual tells you how to get to their Web site by giving you the address of their home page. From the home page, you can get to all the other pages on their site. 


Email is short for electronic mail. Email (or e-mail) is defined as the transmission of messages over internet. Typically the messages are notes entered from the keyboard or electronic files stored on disk.


Recipients: Click this text field to type email addresses. You can also click the Cc or Bcc links to add a new set of recipients. Drag and drop recipients from one field to another, or click the “x” to remove them from your message. Hover over the recipient to see details about them, or double-click on them to edit their address.

To:  Any ID you add in this field receives a copy of that message / attachments etc.

Cc  :   “carbon copy” :

Any ID  you add in this field  receives a copy of that message when you send it. All other recipients of that message CAN SEE that person ID you designated as a cc: recipient.

Bcc:  “blind carbon copy.”

Any ID you add in this field receives a copy of that message when you send it. But, bcc: recipients are INVISIBLE to all the other recipients of the message INCLUDING other bcc: recipients.

Text formatting: Click this icon  to add formatting like font size, bold, underline, and bullets. Or, use our new formatting keyboard shortcuts. Hover over each button to learn the keyboard shortcut you can use for that option. Alignment and indentation options are now collapsed under the alignment icon.

Attachments: Click the Attachment icon to attach files to your message.

Discard: Click the trash can icon  to delete your draft.

More options: Click this menu  to see other tools such as spell check, plain text format, print, adding labels, and including original attachments.

Window size: To compose in a full-screen window, click  expand in the upper right corner of the compose window. To use full-screen by default, click  More options and choose Default to full-screen. Learn more about other size options for the compose window.

Saving: Gmail automatically saves your drafts while you’re writing.

வேலை நேரம்

வேலை நேரம்

தமிழ் நாடு அரசு அலுவலக நடைமுறை

அலுவலகப் பணியாளர்கள் அனைவரும், வேலை நாட்களில் அலுவலகத்திற்கு ஒழுங்காகவும், குறித்த காலமான 10 மணிக்கும் வந்து சேரவேண்டும். இதற்காக வருகைப்பதிவேடு ஒன்று பராமரித்து வரப்படும். இப்பதிவேடு சம்பந்தப்பட்ட பிரிவுத் தலைவர் பொறுப்பில் இருக்கும். சாதரணமாக நமது மாநிலத்தில் எல்லா அலுவலகங்களும் காலை 10 மணியிலிருந்து மாலை 5.45 மணி வரை இயங்கி வருகிறது.

உணவருந்துவதற்காக மதியம்  1 மணியிலிருந்து 2 மணிக்குள் 30 நிமிடங்கள் இடைவேளை எடுத்துக் கொள்ளலாம். ஆனால் பணியார்கள் அனைவரும் ஒரே நேரத்தில் உணவருந்துவதற்காகச்  செல்லக்கூடாது. அவர்கள் அணி அணியாகச் சென்று வரவேண்டும்.

அலுவலக நேரத்திற்கு அப்பால் வேலை செய்ததை அலுவலக நேரத்தில் அலுவலகத்தில் இல்லாமைக்கு ஒப்பாக எடுத்துக் கொள்ளப்பட மாட்டாது.

அலுவலகத்தில் பணியாற்றும் இந்து உறுப்பினர்கள் அமாவாசை அன்று, உண்மையாக மத சம்பந்தமாக கிரியைகள் செய்து வருகிறவர்கள், முன் அனுமதி பெற்று 1 மணி நேரம் தாமதமாக வரலாம். மசூதியில் தொழுகைக்கு செல்லக்கூடிய முகமதியர்கள் வெள்ளிக்கிழமைகளில் மதியம் 1 மணியிலிருந்து 2 மணிக்குள் அலுவலகத்தில் இல்லாமல் இருக்க அனுமதிக்கப்படுகிறார்கள். முகமதியர்கள் ரம்சான் நோன்பைக் கடைப்பிடிப்பவர்கள் ரம்சான் மாதத்தில் வீட்டிற்குச் சென்று விரதத்தை முடிப்பதற்காக அலுவலகத்தை விட்டு அரை மணி நேரம் முன்னதாக செல்ல அனுமதிக்கப்படுவர். இருப்பினும் அவர்களது பணி அவசர வேலை முடியும் வரை இருக்கும்படி சொல்லலாம்.

கீழ்க்கண்ட விழாக்காலங்களில் மத சம்பந்தமான நிகழ்ச்சிகளிலும் அத்தகைய விழாக்களிலோ, மத நிகழ்ச்சிகளிலோ பங்கெடுத்துக் கொள்ளும் அலுவலகப் பணியாளர்கள் விண்ணப்பத்தின் பேரில் காலை 1.30 மணி நேரம் தாமதமா வருவதற்கோ அல்லது பிற்பகலில் அலுவலவகத்தை விட்டு 1.30 மணி நேரம் முன்னதாகச் செல்லவோ அனுமதிக்கப்படலாம்.


கார்த்திகை தீபம், சந்திர கிரகணம், சூரிய கிரகணம், மைலாப்பூரில் தேர்த் திருவிழா, தீபாவளிக்கு முந்திய நாள், காயத்திரி ஜெபம், ஸ்ரீராமி நவமி, மாசி மகம்


புதன் கிழமை (Ash Wednesday) வியாழன் (Maundy Thursday) கிறிஸ்துமஸ், ஈஸ்டருக்கு முந்திய நாள், புத்தாண்டிற்கு முந்திய நாள், மரித்தோர் உயிர்ப்பிக்கும் நாள்


பக்ரீத் முந்திய நாள், ரம்ஜான் முதல் நாள்

மேற்காணும் அனுமதியை சம்பந்தப்பட்ட மதத்தினர் மட்டும்தான் அனுபவித்துக் கொள்ளலாம்

Guidelines for Scientific Research in Protected Areas


  1. Preamble

Scientific Research in the Protected Areas (PA) notified under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 is vital for a better understanding of ecosystems, their functions, ecological status, treat perceptions of various species and their habitats. Information generated through scientific research in Protected Areas (PA) has immense value to field managers for selecting appropriate conservation and adaptive field management actions. Since Protected Areas (PA) also serve as ‘control sites’ or ‘Source Sites’ for comparing a large number of environmental and ecological parameters and processes vis-a-vis human influenced ecosystems, communities and individual species often called the ‘Sink Sites’ in the surrounding areas of the PAs all over the globe. To undertake basic as well as applied research on various aforesaid themes and issues by researchers, institutions and even under graduate/ post graduate students in Protected Areas needs to be encouraged. Failing which, the PAs will be in a disadvantageous side for not having required scientific information on conservation and management issues of the PAs which could influence its future management. In absence of required scientific information based on field studies, such areas will automatically remain poor in having the basic inventories on the biodiversity richness and threat perceptions of the PAs.
As per the guidelines of the National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016), research projects having the objectives of measuring biological diversity, monitoring the status of indicator/flagship/threatened species of flora and fauna, and their breeding biology, needs to be given priority while granting permission to conduct research and monitoring in a PA. In addition, applied research is also needed to help overcome specific management problems in Protected Areas. Multi-disciplinary integrated research encompassing of scientific and socio-economic aspects related to PA management equally needs to be encouraged.
Recognizing the significance of a well-conceived and problem-solving research/study in Protected Areas, adequate provisions for encouraging research work are available in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Section 28 and 35 (8)[grant of permit] of the Act provide authority to the Chief Wildlife Warden (CWLW) to grant permission for required and priority research in Protected Areas [Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks]under the jurisdiction of the Chief Wildlife Warden.

2. Wildlife Research

Wildlife Research is defined as research conducted by qualified scientists, researchers including social scientists or by Scholars / Students / Assistants working under the supervision of Park Managers. Wildlife research may also be conducted by qualified wildlife/social scientists, enthusiasts, and Conservationists. [here in after referred as researcher/Institution in these guidelines.

3.  Duration of Research

Based on the anticipated period of study specified in such research proposals, wildlife research will be categorized as follows:-